The primitive seduction: two unusual “savages”

In 1929, New York’s Knopf publishing house issued the book Lobagola: An Africa Savage’s Own Story. This remarkable autobiography, written by Bata Kindai Amgoza ibn LoBagola, told the adventurous and bizarre life of a “stranger in the XX Century“.
Bata LoBagola was born in West Africa, in a region of Dahomey (now Benin) so remote that it had not been yet reached by white men. Bata had his first encounter with Europeans in the last years of XIX Century when, together with some other members of his tribe, he ventured to the coast and saw a ship getting ready to set sail. When they got to the ship in a canoe, the “savages” were welcomed aboard by merchants, who for an hour or so toured them across the boat; but when the ship left the bank without warning, Bata’s friends, scared, jumped in the water and were devoured by sharks. Bata, who had been delayed under the deck, escaped that fate but had to leave for a different continent’s unknown lands. He was only seven years old.

He landed in Scotland, where he spent his adolescence under the protection of a generous benefactor, and was educated in Edinburgh and Glasgow. Almost by chance, he found out he could earn a little money in the entertainment world, simply telling about his country of origin and his people. So he started to perform in vaudevilles and small traveling shows, answering the audience’s questions and performing traditional dances. Being well-learned, intelligent and an excellent speaker, he soon became more than a simple sideshow attraction, and began being invited to speak before ethnologists and anthropologists. Traveling back and forth between Europe and the United States, LoBagola lectured at the University of Pennsylvania and at Oxford, becoming some kind of “cultural ambassador” for West Africa and of his people’s uses and customs.


To understand why audiences were so fascinated with this “savage”, we have to think about the mentality of that time. In the second half of XIX Century, intensifying colonialism had brought to the discovery of several primitive people, and simultaneously the new modern anthropology was born. On a popular level, adventure novels focusing on the exploration of virgin lands were among the most successful publications. And the insatiable desire for exotism mixed with a widespread and open racism, with the curiosity of seeing the backward primitive man with one’s own eyes; so much so that when he was invited to Philadelphia in 1911, LoBagola earned the definition of “best exhibit in the entire Museum“. As his promotional pamphlet put it, he really seemed “too refined for the primitive crudities of his tribe and too wild for sophisticated society“.

Bata Lobagola was by now a sort of celebrity, constantly touring as a cultural informant in schools and universities, but unfortunately his life took a turn for the worse. Bata had problems with alcohol and a tendency to be involved in small brawls, but the actual sword of Damocles hanging over his head was his homosexuality. Arrested several times for sodomy and minor misdemeanor, he ended up in prison for good in 1931 for petty theft and sexual crimes. The following year the Bureau of Naturalization, whose officials evidently thought something was wrong, began pressing LoBagola, eventually forcing him to confess a truth no one suspected until then.
Bata Kindai Amgoza ibn LoBagola’s real name was Joseph Howard Lee, and he was born in Baltimore, Maryland.

Not everything, in his book, was made up: Joseph Lee had probably been in Glasgow in his youth, as his pages show a certain knowledge of the town, and according to several accounts he had a slight scottish accent. But for sure his childhood had not been spent among lions and elephants — much as it was certain that lions and elephants did not “team up”, as he had written in a creative page of his book, to hunt down humans.
If some readers, who were familiar with West Africa, had realized by the time his false autobiography appeared that his descriptions were pure fantasy, University professors never started to doubt his version. All the most curious if we consider that in the same book the idea is candidly suggested that one could tell anything about Africa to white men, and they would believe it.
Racial discrimination can be considered one of the factors behind LoBagola’s false identity: since 1907, pretending to be a savage ensured him certain privileges that paradoxically he wouldn’t had been able to attain as an afroamerican. He died in 1947 in Attica maximum security prison, where the most dangerous criminals of the time were detained.

But his strange fraud had an excellent predecessor.

George Psalmanazar appeared in London in 1703, declaring to be native of Formosa (Taiwan), at the time a faraway island of which very little was known. Psalmanazar had astonishing habits: he only ate raw, cardamom-spiced meat, he slept sitting upright in a chair, performed complex every-day rituals to honor the Sun and Moon, and followed an unknown calendar. And his tales of his native land were fabulous and cruel — particularly his descriptions of the annual ritual sacrifices of 18.000 young boys, culminating in cannibalism.
George Psalmanazar was invited to talk about Formosan culture in the most important intellectual clubs, and even lectured before the Royal Society.
In 1704 he published An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa, an Island subject to the Emperor of Japan, a book which immediately had enormous success and several reprints. Everywhere Formosa was the talk of the day: readers and intellectuals were fascinated by the accounts of these savages who only wore a golden plate to cover their genitals, who dwelled in underground homes feeding on snakes, and occasionally eating human flesh. Besides reporting on Formosa’s customs and traditions, Psalmanazar also detailed language and alphabet, so convincingly that many german grammars went on including this information even decades after the hoax had been confessed.



In 1706, facing growing skepticism and the accounts of those travelers who had actually been to Formosa, Psalmanazar had to drop the mask: he actually was born in France, was educated by Jesuits, and his only talents were a huge knowledge and an uncommon attitude for languages. So much so that he succeded in constructing one from scratch, to support his lies and reach fame.
Before dying in 1763, he wrote a second book of memoirs, published posthumously, where he uncovered some details about the creation of his hoax. But not even in this last autobiography did he reveal his true name, which today still remains a mystery.




In spite of his last years’ religious convertion and his remorse for the scam, Psalmanazar’s work is now regarded as a small masterpiece of ingenuity. Besides a functioning language, the author gave his fantastic island a history, cults and traditions, even several different coins and over precise ceremonial outfits, and today his fresco seems to anticipate, on the account of its obsessive care for detail, some modern literary constructions (think of Tolkien’s appendices about his imaginary Middle Earth’s genealogy, linguistics, botany, etc.).
But there’s more, as historian Benjamin Breen writes:

As I devoured the immense creativity on display in Description of Formosa, it occurred to me that Psalmanazar was also telling us something fundamental about the origins of modernity. The world of seafarers, merchants, slaves, and transported criminals that created Europe’s overseas empires was built upon elaborate fictions, from Prester John to Jonathan Swift. Although the scale and singularity of his deception made him unique, Psalmanazar was also representative: while he was inventing tales of Formosan cannibalism, his peers were writing falsified histories of pirate utopias, parodic accounts of islands populated by super-intelligent horses, and sincere descriptions of demonic sacrifices.
These works raised profound questions about the nature of truth and fiction. Is the act of travel also an act of authorship, of inventing a reality that we each filter through our individual preconceptions? How do we understand worlds that differ so fundamentally from our own that they almost seem to be other planets?

(B. Breen, Made in Taiwan?: An Eighteenth-Century Frenchman’s Fictional Formosa)

For LoBagola’s story, the main source is a wonderful podcast on Futility Closet. LoBagola’s autobiography can be found on Amazon. George Psalmanazar’s story is splendidly told in Banvard’s Folly, and Description of Formosa is available on the Internet Archive.

Deformazioni craniche artificiali

Abbiamo già parlato (in questo articolo) dell’antica usanza cinese di deformare i piedi femminili tramite fasciature per motivi estetici. Altri tipi di deformazioni artificiali possono ancora oggi avvenire per motivi di sostentamento economico: pensiamo in particolare ad alcune terribili pratiche di deformazione del bambino nei paesi del Terzo Mondo (e non solo) che rendono i piccoli invalidi a vita – e quindi più adatti a suscitare pietà ed elemosine. Un tempo c’erano poi i famigerati Comprachicos (“compratori di bambini”), immortalati da Victor Hugo nel suo romanzo L’Uomo che ride, che sfiguravano i bambini per assicurare un buon tornaconto nelle fiere e nelle esibizioni di stranezze umane. Altro esempio letterario sul tema è la splendida novella di Maupassant La madre dei mostri, nel quale una diabolica donna porta busti strettissimi durante la gravidanza per ottenere figli deformi da vendere al circo.

Ma nella maggior parte dei casi, proprio come avveniva per il loto d’oro in Cina, la modificazione del corpo in tenera età era estremamente importante soprattutto a livello sociale, perché poteva denotare lo status e la provenienza del bambino. Ed ecco che arriviamo all’argomento centrale di questo articolo: la deformazione del cranio.

Quello che i cinesi facevano ai piedi delle donne, molti altri facevano alle teste dei loro bambini.

Nelle culture primitive, e non soltanto, la modificazione corporale è intimamente connessa con l’appartenenza a una determinata società. Così la fasciatura della testa divenne per un certo periodo una pratica fondamentale per garantire al proprio figlio una posizione sociale influente.

La casistica di queste deformazioni si compone normalmente di teste allungate, teste schiacciate, teste coniche o sferiche. Il comune denominatore è la restrizione della normale crescita delle ossa del cranio durante le primissime fasi della formazione, quando le ossa sono ancora soffici, tramite diversi strumenti: ad esempio, per ottenere un figlio dalla testa allungata occorreva farlo crescere con due pezzi di legno saldamente legati ai lati del capo, in modo che il cranio si sviluppasse verso l’alto. Per avere una testa completamente rotonda occorreva stringerla in forti giri di stoffa.

I primi a utilizzare questo tipo di pratiche di modificazione corporale permanente sembra fossero gli antichi Egizi (infatti Tutankhamen e Nefertiti avevano la testa oblunga), ma alcuni studi indicano che forse anche gli uomini di Neanderthal, vissuti 45.000 anni prima di Cristo, potrebbero averne fatto uso. Nel 400 a.C. Ippocrate scrisse di abitudini simili riferendosi a una tribù che aveva denominato “i Macrocefali”. Congo, Borneo, Tahiti, Samoa, Hawaii, aborigeni australiani, Inca e Maya, nativi Americani, Unni, Ostrogoti,  tribù Melanesiane: ai quattro angoli del globo le tecniche differivano ma l’obiettivo era lo stesso – assicurare al bambino un futuro migliore. Le persone con una testa allungata, infatti, venivano ritenute più intelligenti e più vicine agli spiriti; non soltanto, erano immediatamente riconoscibili come appartenenti ad un determinato gruppo o tribù. Così, più o meno a un mese dalla nascita, i bambini cominciavano a venire fasciati fino circa all’età di sei mesi, ma talvolta oltre l’anno di età.

Non è escluso che queste pratiche avessero altri tipi di valenze – magiche, mediche, ecc. Lascia interdetti scoprire che in Francia la fasciatura della testa durò addirittura fino al 1800: nell’area di Deux-Sevres, si bendavano le teste dei bambini dai due ai quattro mesi; poi si continuava sostituendo il bendaggio con una sorta di cesto di vimini posto sulla testa del bambino, e rinforzato con filo di metallo mano a mano che il ragazzo cresceva.